The Macintosh apple variety has long been known in different countries of the world, including Russia. The list of the State Register, in which all bred varieties are recorded, is annually expanded by new varieties with improved characteristics. Despite this, there are old cultures that have not diminished in popularity. These include the Macintosh apple tree. The secret of her success among gardeners is her yield.
Breeding history of the variety
The foreign variety Mackintosh, or Mekintosh, belongs to the autumn. The history of its breeding is interesting. Fruit crops, as is rarely the case, are not the result of breeders' labor or the crossing of several varieties.
This variety was discovered by accident, this event happened in the 18th century. In 1796, a farmer Meckintosh bought a piece of land in Ontario and found several young apple trees on it. After transplanting, the only tree survived. It gave a harvest of apples every year, and its lifespan exceeded 100 years.
It was this unique apple tree that became the progenitor of the new variety. First, it spread throughout Canada, and then was introduced to other countries of the New World, and then crossed the ocean and found itself in Europe, reaching Russia. The culture was named Macintosh after the name of the discoverer.
External tree data
In our country, the Macintosh apple tree gained fame under other names. She is called Autumn excellent, Autumn red-sided or Khoroshevka autumn.
Height and size of the crown
The culture is a medium-sized tree with a pyramidal crown. The skeletal branches of the plant diverge from the trunk in a cauldron-like manner. The height of the apple tree can exceed 6 meters, and some specimens grow up to 8 meters. The branches are of medium thickness, slightly curved, differing in a dark cherry shade.
The crown is slightly spreading, not thickened. Their annual growth, on average, is 7-10 centimeters. The trunk is covered with brown bark. Leaves are yellowish-green, wide, slightly pubescent, ovoid. Along the edges are framed with small denticles. Buds are small, with a round apex, convex. Fruits are chaotically located on the branches.
The root system of the apple tree includes thick skeletal roots and many processes of the second and third order. Young branches are covered with thick thin hairs, the function of which is to search for and absorb moisture.
Description of the fruit and its taste
Macintosh fruits can be large or medium in size. The weight of each of them varies between 150-200 grams. The main color of apples is whitish yellow, sometimes green. The coat consists of blurred dark purple stripes against a red background. The shape of the fruit, planted on short stalks, is spherical, with slight ribbing.
The apples are covered with a smooth, thin, shiny skin with a waxy coating. It separates from the hearth pulp easily. The seeds are large and pointed. Their color is brown.
The pulp has a white tint, sometimes reddish streaks are located along it. It tastes juicy and very tender, with a pronounced sourness and a bright aroma. Has an average density.
The purpose of the variety is fresh consumption. In addition, Macintosh apples are often used for winter preparations, they are used in the preparation of applesauce, drinks, and also as a filling for baking.
Apple tree characteristics
The distinctive qualities of the Macintosh variety are the duration of fruiting, the pleasant taste of the fruits, the average winter hardiness and transportability of apples. The plant also has its drawbacks. Many gardeners report poor resistance to certain diseases, such as scab, as well as a decrease in yield under adverse weather conditions and unsuitable ripening of fruits.
Resistance to negative temperatures
The Macintosh variety is one of the medium-hardy. In the winter months, when the air temperature drops to -20 C, the fruit shoots of this plant often freeze slightly. During the next growing season, this manifests itself in a decrease in yield.
Disease and insect susceptibility
The most common diseases that pose a danger to this variety are fungal, namely scab, powdery mildew. And the main insect pests that can cause damage to the tree include the moth and aphid.
In which areas is it possible to land
On the territory of Russia, the variety is most often found in the southern regions of the European part. In addition, the Macintosh apple tree is regionalized in the North Caucasus and the Lower Volga.
Pollination and self-fertility
Representatives of the Macintosh variety are considered self-fertile plants. However, gardeners with crop experience recommend cross-pollination with other varieties. This allows you to increase the number of ovaries.
Flowering and ripening times
For the first time, a culture blooms in the second year of life. Flowering occurs in early May. Ripening of hearths is uneven. To preserve the harvest, they begin to harvest it at the end of August.
One adult Macintosh tree produces, on average, 200 kilograms of fruit per season. Among the representatives of the variety, there are also champions. Some of them, in favorable growing conditions, demonstrate a yield of 350 kilograms.
At the same time, in some years, the fruiting of the culture may decrease, without frequency.
Duration of storage and use of fruits
The harvested crop ripens within 3 weeks. Fruits stored at a temperature of +5, + 10 C leave their taste unchanged for 3-4 months. They are used to make juices, jams, ciders, sauces, pie fillings.
Planting and agricultural technology
The correct planting and subsequent care determine the life span of the tree and the indicators of its yield.
Landing time and plan
Planting of seedlings is carried out in early spring, before bud break, or in autumn, 30 days before the onset of frost. When planting, they dig a hole, the depth of which should be 60 centimeters, and the width - 100 centimeters. The distance between adjacent seedlings should be at least 3 meters.
The bottom of the pit is covered with humus, a glass of wood ash and superphosphate is added each. Having planted a seedling, a peg is necessarily installed next to it.When planting, make sure that the root collar of the planted tree is above the ground, at a height of 5-6 centimeters.
Required soil mixture
In areas where sandy soil prevails, before planting, it is necessary to add black soil, humus and peat to the soil. And when preparing a pit for a seedling, a layer of clay about 10 centimeters thick should be poured onto the bottom.
Fertilization and watering
Thanks to regular feeding, the culture begins to bear fruit quickly and actively.
It is recommended to use nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers every year, and mineral and nitrogen fertilizers every three years.
The first watering is carried out immediately after planting. The required volume of water for one plant is at least 4 buckets. The next watering is breaded no earlier than in 6-7 days.
To protect against diseases and insect pests, they resort to spraying. For the first time, this procedure is carried out before bud break, to destroy the larvae. The trees are then treated at the beginning of the flowering period to protect against fungal diseases. Fixing spraying occurs at the end of flowering.
For the first time, trees are cut immediately after planting. This is done in such a way that the branches are located 5 centimeters lower than the main conductor. Subsequently, the buds are pruned so that the main lateral shoots show active growth.
Preparing an apple tree for winter
Before the onset of cold weather, you need to take care of the frost resistance of the culture. For this, the hilling and mulching of the trunks are carried out. Whitewash of lime or chalk is applied to the lower parts of the trunks.
Macintosh apple trees are successfully propagated by rootstocks, which makes it possible to breed new fruit crops. There are several varieties of the variety.
It is the result of crossing Kulon-Kitayka and Macintosh. The apple tree was bred by domestic breeders. Belongs to winter varieties, it is resistant to low temperatures, high yield, shelf life. The fruit is green in color with a reddish blush. The variety was bred specifically for growing in the Moscow region.
Late autumn variety with yellow-green fruits. Gives first harvests from the fourth year of life. The apples are sweet and sour, medium in size. One of the advantages of Macintosh Black is drought tolerance.
A well-known variety, developed in the United States in 1898. At the beginning of the twentieth century, it was brought to Russia. The variety is late ripening. Apples weigh up to 110 grams. Cortland exhibits a sensitivity to scab, which reduces yields.
Weak culture. Belongs to mid-autumn varieties. The fruits are bright red in color and have a sweet taste. Their main advantage is their richness with vitamins, due to which apples are often used for baby food.
It is a straight stem without spreading lateral branches. The fruits are arranged on small fruit twigs along the trunk. This shape of the tree allows you to save space on the site. The variety is characterized by fast fruiting. The life span of this species is no more than 13 years. After this period, the apple trees are replaced with young ones.
Currently, there are about 60 varieties of Macintosh in the world, and about a third of them are bred by domestic breeders. When choosing apple tree seedlings, you should take a closer look at the varieties Melba, Orlovskoe striped, Spartan, Orlik, Slava Winners. All of them are the result of hybridization of the old Macintosh variety.