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Trees and shrubs from the Ebony family live for hundreds of years, differ in the appearance, shape and shade of the fruit. Although the Chinese were the first to cultivate persimmons, varieties grown in South America are surprising with the largest berries. In the countries of the Caucasus and Greece, trees are planted with miniature fruits weighing less than 50 grams. Israeli breeders have created a seedless Sharon. Growing persimmons is not so difficult to deal with if you know the features of the selected variety.
Description and external parameters
Trees from the Ebony family reach 15 meters in height, shrubs - 5. Oval persimmon leaves, which are pointed at the ends, fall off every year. The outer side is shiny, and the inner side is matte. The diameter of the fruit in some varieties is only 2 cm, in others it reaches 15. The berries hang on the tree when there are no leaves at all, which, before falling off, acquire a bright red color, but without them the plant does not remain for long.
What the fruit looks like depends on both the ripening stage and the variety. In a ripe fruit, the skin acquires a reddish tint, and the pulp becomes jelly-like and loses its tart taste. The berries contain 5–7 seeds, but hybrids may not have seeds.
Varieties and varieties
In the fall, vendors line the counters with orange fruits. Most often they bring Sharon and Korolek. Inedible tart persimmons are found in the wild, but hundreds of cultivars have been created that have a pleasant taste.
Almost 60 years ago, Crimean breeders bred a persimmon hybrid, which is adapted to growing in a climate where frosts reach 35 ° C in winter. A short tree of the Rossiyanka variety blooms in June, does not require the neighborhood of pollinators. The next year after planting, fruits appear:
- yellow-orange color;
- weighing about 50 g;
- firm pulp.
The berries have a tart aftertaste, after ripening they become softer and tastier. The variety has several subspecies with different shades, without grains and with seeds.
The Japanese persimmon tree grows up to 15 meters high. On brown pubescent shoots are oval shiny leaves, which acquire a red tint in autumn.
In place of yellowish-white flowers, berries are formed, weighing up to 0.5 kg.
Shoots of eastern persimmon freeze at 20 ° C frost, but the next year buds are laid, an ovary is formed. The tree does not take root in wetlands, it is demanding for heat. Ripe fruits become sweet and orange in color.
The berries of this persimmon variety ripen from male flowers on trees from 8 to 12 m in height. The underside of the leaves has a light green tint. In May, Korolek releases single burgundy buds. By autumn, fruits ripen, which differ:
- shape in the form of a ball;
- chocolate color;
- sweet creamy pulp.
Berries are rich in pectin, fiber, vitamins, used for making jams, molasses and beer. Roasted seeds produce a drink that resembles coffee.
The tree of such a persimmon has powerful roots, the trunk is similar to a column. Oval leaves form a beautiful and lush crown. In summer, greenish flowers appear, the diameter of ripe berries is only 20 mm. The tart fruits of the Caucasian persimmon contain up to a dozen grains, the bark contains tannins, and the leaves are rich in quinine. Up to 20 buckets of bright yellow berries with a low calorie content are harvested from one tree.
In North America, in the Mediterranean countries, in the Caucasus, a tropical crop variety is grown, which participated in the breeding of the Russian hybrid. Persimmon Virginia is pollinated by bees and the wind, taken from the bone, but it is better to purchase a seedling. The fruits have a juicy flesh of a pale yellow color, weigh up to 500 g, the diameter of the berry is about 6 cm.
Persimmon hybrids were created in the Crimean Botanical Garden. When pollinating the Russian woman, bred by Ukrainian breeders, and the Eastern variety of tropical fruit, a new variety was obtained, which was named Nikitskaya burgundy. The small tree has a pyramidal crown and can withstand frosts up to 25 ° C. The berries ripen in early October, some specimens weigh 120 g. Sweet fruits are covered with purine, have a burgundy hue. One plant produces up to 7 buckets of fruit.
Among the 500 varieties of culture from the Ebony family, there are those whose fruits differ in their appearance from the most common varieties of persimmons. Mabolo evergreen trees grow slowly, but reach a height of up to 20 meters, do not shed their leaves, they are found in the Philippines. The berries have a velvety surface, they are yellow, red, and have a purple color.
Green fruits smell like dampness, but when ripe, the pulp becomes juicy and aromatic.
Europeans who came to Central America were attracted by trees with decorative light green leaves and spherical fruits. Ripe berries of Chocolate persimmon are brown in color, the sweet pulp surprises with a fragrant aroma. Trees bloom very abundantly, attract insects, easily tolerate heat, but are demanding on humidity.
This type of persimmon is grown in Tajikistan and other countries of Central Asia on irrigated lands, cultivated in India. On short trees, orange fruits ripen; when ripe, they have a sweet taste and delicate aroma.
Self-fertile trees are distinguished by a dense crown formed by dark green leaves. The weight of ripe orange berries reaches 300 grams. They have dense flesh and are well transported. The bovine heart is grown on an industrial scale, requires regular watering, does not like drafts, tolerates cold snaps down to -25 ° C.
The variety withstands Siberian frosts, pleases with fruits for the third year after planting, the weight of individual specimens is close to 120 grams. Ripe berries are not orange, but burgundy. The gift of God pollinates other varieties of culture, since it has 2 types of flowers.
Persimmon, growing wild in Dagestan and Western Georgia, is a tree up to 10 meters high. The fruits have a spherical shape, their diameter rarely exceeds 5 cm, the berries are dark blue, almost black in color.
Trees of this variety reach 15-18 meters in height, withstand frosts over 30 degrees, can grow and bear fruit in mid-latitudes. Persimmon Mider berries have the shape of a flattened ball, appreciated for their delicate taste and sophisticated aroma. Astringency is absent even in an unripe fruit, there are no seeds in it either.
Many years ago in China, they began to plant plants in containers, creating a real art. Any interior will be decorated with a tree with amber fruits. Miniature persimmon looks amazing in a tub. It is planted as an ordinary houseplant, it is watered and sprayed abundantly in summer, and it is taken out in winter to a room with a temperature of no higher than 10 ° C.
In the gorges and deciduous forests of the Caucasus, wild dates or persimmons grow. The trees reach a height of 30 meters. The wood is used for the production of furniture, and vitamin tea is brewed from the leaves. Flowers serve as honey plants and attract wild bees. Mountain persimmon berries are less than 2 cm in diameter, when ripe they become almost black, covered with a purine bloom.
How to grow persimmon
In a temperate climate, a tropical culture will not please with high yields of large fruits, even when picking up an early variety, but if you carry out pruning that forms the crown every year, the southern plant will perfectly decorate the garden.
From the bone
Indoor flower lovers plant persimmons in tubs and flowerpots. It takes root well if you pick up quality seeds. You can prepare the seed yourself from a ripe and healthy fruit. Germinate seeds in a wet cloth, wrapping them in cellophane. In a warm place, shoots appear after 2 or 3 weeks.
The seed is planted in a pot, the next year the bush can be moved to an area that is illuminated by the sun all day, closed from drafts.
From a seedling
The second method is suitable for those who are going to grow crops in the open field. In order not to buy wild, a young tree must be bought in a nursery. Planting is carried out in the spring, the root collar needs to be deepened by about 10 cm by grafting to the south side. The earth is lightly tamped, watered, and mulch is poured.
Plant growing rules
In the garden, low trees are placed according to a 3 x 3 scheme, 7 meters are left between tall varieties. When buying a high-quality seedling, persimmon can please with fruits already in the third year, if you create all the necessary conditions for it.
Growing in open ground
In order for a tropical culture to perform not only decorative functions, but also to bloom magnificently, to reward with a harvest, a place for planting a tree is chosen on an area where a piercing wind does not blow, there are no drafts. Any soil is suitable, except for swampy soils and salt marshes. In a temperate climate, frost-resistant early varieties normally take root, trees are planted in the spring. For several years they will have to be carefully covered for the winter.
In which areas can you grow
Persimmon feels good in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, in the North Caucasus. Breeders have created hybrids that bear fruit in the Moscow region, in the Belgorod region. In central Russia, the frost-resistant Virginian persimmon, an American variety that can withstand minus 35, grows normally. The Rossiyanka hybrid is also adapted to temperate climates.
In the Urals, a tropical crop can only be planted in a heated greenhouse, and not grown in a garden. A tree in a harsh climate lacks the sum of high temperatures.
Having selected seeds from ripe persimmon fruits, they can be planted at home in a pot. After stratification, the grains are deepened 1 or 2 cm into the soil prepared:
- from humus;
- turf land;
- wood ash;
- bone meal;
- coarse sand.
The container is covered with glass and regularly ventilated. After the sprouts appear, the seedlings are transplanted into other pots and left on the windowsill.
Features of seasonal care
A southern plant will develop well if you create optimal conditions for it, know how to care for a tropical guest.
In addition to heat and sun, the roots and leaves of the tree need a lot of moisture, but it should not stagnate. It is useful to spray persimmons with warm water, and it is better to do this in the evenings. How often you water your plant in your garden depends on the weather. In arid climates, irrigation will have to be done every day, loosen and mulch the soil in the near-trunk circle.
During planting of trees, a bucket of rotted manure and a glass of superphosphate are introduced into the pit, mixed well with the ground. After a couple of months, the plant is fertilized with a liquid solution of vermicompost. Chicken droppings, wood ash, compost, slurry are suitable for feeding. In the first years, nutrients are introduced into the trunk circle.
The tropical visitor has a long growing season. If the persimmon is planted in the shade, the leaves will curl, the ovary will crumble. The tree will develop normally only if there are at least 2 thousand light hours, otherwise it will have to be planted in a greenhouse, where additional lamps will be installed.
Persimmon adores the sun, in summer it feels great at 20-30 ° C, but it may not survive the cold winter. Even frost-resistant varieties, planted in open ground, need to be covered, at minus 20, the roots suffer, the shoots freeze out.
Pruning and pinching
When the height of the tree reaches half a meter, the formation of the crown begins, the side branches are shortened so as to give it the appearance of a ball. The main shoot is pinched, regular thinning helps prevent thickening, it is better to do this in the fall, summer pruning involves removing dried branches.
In order for the persimmon to start to delight faster with the harvest, it is necessary to accelerate the formation of flower buds, for this purpose:
- At the base of the strongest shoot, the bark is cut in the form of a ring, perpendicular to its growth.
- The ring is grafted to the cut with the reverse side.
- Secure with cling film to prevent infection from entering the wound.
Persimmon will quickly delight with berries when it engrafts a tree stalk that is already bearing fruit. Knowing what to graft the shoot on, you can significantly accelerate the formation of flower buds.
If a tropical guest is grown not in the open field, but on a windowsill, the pot becomes cramped to the roots over time. The persimmon is transplanted into a new container with a diameter of 3 cm larger. In the open ground in the southern regions, the tree is moved in the spring, digging a hole 60 cm deep.In cold climates, it is better to grow a tropical culture in a tub, and in summer to take it out to a balcony or garden.
How to prepare persimmons for wintering
In late autumn, the tree should be watered abundantly. Although hybrid varieties tolerate severe frosts, the first 4 years after planting the plants need to be covered for the winter. For this, 3 pegs are hammered around the trunk and the sacking is pulled. The roots are buried in earth, and it is advisable to wrap the skeletal branches with material.
Summer residents who grow persimmon from stone should not wait for the rapid appearance of berries. The tree will look beautiful, but there are no big harvests in temperate climates.
Flowering and pollination
A game grows from the bone. In order for persimmon to please with fruit, they graft an shoot from a tree or shrub, which already had berries. A thermophilic culture blooms in June for the third or fourth year, but in order for the ovary to appear at home, you need to plant a pollinator nearby.
The beginning of fruiting
Even with the right place for persimmons, timely watering, adherence to a certain humidity and feeding, it is not always possible to wait for berries, growing a tropical guest in a temperate climate. The tree begins to bear fruit in the seventh year.
Fruit ripening time
Persimmon blooms late, already, when warm days come, but the berries have time to fill up with juice before frost appears. In southern Russia, the fruits ripen by early November.
Harvesting and storage of crops
Persimmons are picked by hand, slightly scrolling on the stalk. Juicy berries are used for making jams and preserves, for freezing and drying. Fresh fruits are stored at 0 ° C for no more than 3 months, at room temperature - up to a week.
Several exotic plants can be planted in the garden or in the house, they will delight with a decorative look.
At what time to reproduce persimmons depends on the method chosen. Cuttings are planted as soon as the threat of frost return has passed. The seeds must be harvested in the fall and germinated immediately, budding can be performed in August.
In room conditions, persimmon is convenient to propagate by seeds, grafting is carried out in the open field. If a fruit-bearing tree grows in the garden, green grafting can be done.
How to plant persimmon
To accelerate the flowering of a tropical culture and for its reproduction, they resort to budding, in which young trees are grafted with one bud. Cuttings are harvested before the juice starts to move, placed in wet sand and taken to the basement. One skeletal branch is cut down in the crown, several harvested shoots are inserted into the stump.
Novice gardeners do not know what to graft a cutting from a fruiting tree on, although any of the budding options is used.
Diseases and pests - ways to combat
Persimmon that grows in a pot on a windowsill is sometimes affected by powdery mildew. Airing the trees in the fresh air helps to prevent the appearance of the problem. In the garden, a tropical culture often suffers from root or gray rot. To fight diseases, fungicides "Topsin" or "Impact" are used.
In an unfavorable climate, non-observance of agricultural technology, branches and young shoots are affected by bacterial cancer, and the tree dies.To eliminate scab, fusarium, persimmon is sprayed with Bordeaux liquid, treated with "Fitosporin". Sometimes mites and scale insects grow on the plant, which draw juice from leaves and shoots. Insecticides or biological preparations "Boverin", "Gaupsin" help to get rid of pests.