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Plum has many varieties and varieties. One of the brightest representatives is Generalskaya plum, the variety has good qualities for growing. It was developed for the lands of Siberia and the Urals, since plums do not grow there in their natural environment. It is resistant to frost, accumulates moisture, has strong immunity.
Breeding history of the General's plum
Breeders of Siberia and the Far East worked on the breeding of the variety. They had to make a lot of effort to remove the plum, which is adapted to the frequent frosts of these parts of the country. Scientists from the Research Institute of Primorye worked on breeding the variety in the 50s of the 20th century. The attempts were not successful for a long time. However, it was possible to create a medium-sized tree with good fruitful properties.
Description of the variety
General's plum is usually small in size; gardeners consider it a shrub. Other trees and shrubs are planted next to it. It is considered early maturing. The first fruits ripen in the third year of development. Flowers and ovary are formed in spring, fruits ripen by late summer or early autumn. They form a lush crown, the branches are close to each other, thereby creating the density of the tree.
The plum forms a dense stalk that prevents the fruit from falling off.
What is the characteristic of culture
This plant is characterized by frost resistance, good heat tolerance, strong immune system. It rarely gets sick. Neighboring pollinators are required for fruit set.
Frost and drought resistance
General's plum is resistant to low temperatures. Calmly tolerates frosts down to -40 ° С, which is typical for Siberia and the Urals. It is unpretentious in watering and is able to cope with drought. The plum has a well-developed root system, with a lack of moisture, it feeds it from the deep layers of the soil.
Exposure to insects and diseases
General's plum has good immunity to most typical diseases, rarely gets sick. It is recommended to carry out preventive measures for the safety and integrity of the fruit. At the beginning of the season, the tree is examined for the presence of insect larvae, if they are, then they are removed. When cracks and damage to the trunk appear, they are treated with copper sulfate and covered with garden var.
Preventive measures prevent the development of gray rot, red and brown spots, rust, cytosporosis.
Pollinators and flowering
The tree is self-fertile, for pollination it is necessary to plant the Ural red plum nearby. This variety is considered the most suitable for flowering time. General's plum blossoms at the end of May. The fruits are tied in the third year of its development, ripen for a long time. Harvesting is carried out in early September or late August.
The yield of the General's plum is high. About 30 kilograms of fruit are harvested from one tree. It has large, juicy fruits up to 40 grams each, drupe of yellow color, a distinctive feature is a bright pink lateral stripe. The pulp is dense, juicy, sweet and sour taste. The bones are easily separated, small in size. The peel is dense, edible, and sour taste. Plum fruits are well stored for a long time, they retain their appearance for about 3 months.
Rules for the collection and use of fruits
The collection is carried out at the end of summer. The fruits are put in ventilated boxes, carefully so as not to hit. If the integrity of the fetus is damaged, it is stored less. A cool place is perfect for long-term storage.Plum is widely used in the household. It is excellent for dietary nutrition; compotes, preserves are made from it, and prunes are prepared. Used fresh and processed.
Features of growing plums
General's plum is unpretentious in care. For growing, you need to choose a good place with lighting. They are planted in the soil, following certain rules.
Terms of planting works
Planting is carried out in spring or autumn. It is recommended to choose the beginning of spring, since when planting in autumn, there is a risk of losing the tree if it does not have time to put down good roots. If the planting fell in the autumn period, it is necessary to insulate the near-stem area with fallen leaves or special fabric heaters.
Seedling and soil preparation
To start planting, you need to acquire a seedling and choose a suitable place for it. When buying a young tree, it is important to pay attention to dry twigs, rotten root areas, lichen traces, cut branches. Choose a healthy tree with a strong trunk and good roots.
They choose a place inaccessible to drafts, with good lighting, without flooding the soil. Position it so that nearby trees and shrubs do not block the sunlight. Plum is unpretentious to the soil, the main thing is to create good drainage for the roots. The hole should be deep and wide as the plant has large roots.
Planting technological process
Planting a seedling is done as follows:
- After digging a hole, a support stick is installed in its center, which will protect the tree from strong winds.
- Fall asleep with a mixture of humus and earth.
- The plant is moved into the hole, after carefully spreading the roots.
- Sprinkle the roots in layers, tamping each layer so that there is no empty space.
- Pour warm water over the plum.
- Organic or mineral fertilizers are applied.
What kind of care is needed for a general's grade
In order for the plum to please with its fruits, it is required to observe the watering regime, to prune branches, top dressing and spraying.
Irrigation and feeding
General plum loves moisture, it is watered every day during the dry period of summer, when the temperature drops, watering is reduced to 2-3 times a week.
It is also necessary to spray the leaves with water several times a week.
Top dressing is carried out with nitrogen-containing fertilizers from the age of three. The manipulation is carried out in early spring and autumn. While the plum is young, it is fertilized with natural organic compounds.
For prevention, spraying is carried out three times in the spring. Copper sulfate 3% solution and urea are used for this. Spraying is carried out in March, April and May. Dates vary depending on the characteristic weather conditions of the growing region.
Plum is demanding for cutting off dead branches. Thinning needs to be done fairly often. Basal shoots are removed, as they reduce the fruiting of the plant. Plum spends its energy on the development of additional shoots, reducing the nutrition of the fruit. With dense growth of branches, they are thinned out so as not to interfere with the development of the fruit.
Caring for the attachment wheel
New shoots grow around the trunk and need to be cut. For the attachment circle for the winter, a heater is formed to protect the roots from frost. This is especially required for young trees.
Preparing for winter
Plum shows its high resistance to frost, three years after planting. Young specimens are harbored. The root part of the trunk is wrapped in moss when the first frost appears. After the snow falls, the moss is trampled down, creating a snug fit to the tree.
At the end of the season, mulching the tree is carried out, this helps to deter rodents that feed on the bark.
General's plum is unpretentious in care. A pollinator is needed to form the ovaries. Plum produces a large number of fruits that are widely used in the household. They have a lot of useful properties, as well as pleasant taste. This variety of plum takes root in all regions of the country, is resistant to frost, drought and characteristic diseases.