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Gardeners are actively growing Japanese quince in their dachas. This is not surprising: the plant is decorative throughout the growing season. And the fruits are used not only in cooking, but also in folk medicine. More than 500 varieties of oriental curiosity are known. But when choosing a plant for planting in the country, it is recommended to give preference to zoned species. Then the plant will delight the gardener with useful fruits.
Characteristic features of culture
Japanese quince is a relative of all familiar apple and pear trees. In gardens, it is used as an ornamental crop. Distinctive features of the plant:
- there are tree-like (up to 3 m) and bush (up to 0.6 m) forms;
- shoots are flexible, have thorns up to 2 cm long;
- the branches are densely leafy, the color of the leaves is emerald green;
- the plant blooms with pink-red, orange-red, white flowers;
- fruits with a diameter of 3-5 cm;
- fruit color is yellow-green or orange;
- the skin is dense, covered with a characteristic waxy bloom;
- 1/2 of the fruit is occupied by the seed chamber.
The taste of the fruit is bittersweet, the pulp is dense, aromatic. Due to its rapid growth and decorativeness, low shrub quince is used in summer cottages to create hedges.
Quince is easy to recognize by how the plant looks like:
- long shoots are covered with dark brown bark;
- the bark has a red tint;
- the leaves are elongated, obtuse;
- flowers, up to 5 cm in diameter, have 5 large petals.
This plant belongs to the Pink family.
The shrub has a height of 0.6 m. Shoots are flexible, thorny, strongly leafy. The length of the branches reaches 1 m. Often the branches lie on the ground, where they root themselves. In the absence of care, shrub quince forms a continuous thorny carpet.
Quince has a developed root system. The main root goes into the ground to a depth of 5 m. It is able to extract water for plant growth and development. The fibrous roots are located shallow below the soil surface. They are very vulnerable to loosening. It is recommended to pay special attention to the root collar. It should be located at ground level.
With proper care, the plant will delight the gardener with fragrant fruits. The yield depends on the quince variety. Fruits tolerate early frosts well. When to harvest the fruit depends on the weather. Usually, this is the end of September - beginning of October.
Useful properties and contraindications of quince fruits
Japanese quince contains a lot of vitamins and minerals. They determine the beneficial properties of the plant:
- The amount of vitamin C is twice the daily requirement. Regular consumption of the fruit strengthens the immune system.
- Iron makes the fruit essential for anemia.
- Magnesium and potassium strengthen the heart muscle and have a beneficial effect on blood formation.
- Minerals speed up metabolic processes.
- Regular consumption of quince promotes urination.
- Fruits bind poisons and remove them: use is useful for food poisoning.
- Quince tea strengthens the body.
It is important to remember: the fruits of the plant have the ability to restore liver cells.
Where is used
The beneficial properties of fruits have ensured their use in various fields.
Doctors prescribe chaenomeles as the main or complementary medicine for:
- flu and colds to strengthen the immune system;
- coughing to increase expectoration;
- asthma to prevent attacks;
- anemia and blood loss to restore blood;
- liver disease to restore damaged cells;
- poisoning as an astringent;
- kidney disease as a diuretic;
- liver diseases as a choleretic agent.
But it is not recommended to prescribe treatment with chaenomeles on your own: it is important to undergo an examination and find out compatibility with the medications taken.
Gardeners use the plant to create hedges. The thorny plant forms impenetrable thorny thickets. Chaenomeles is decorative, therefore it is used for landscaping the site.
The unusual taste of the fruits ensured their use in cooking. Chaenomeles produces:
- candied fruit;
The fruits can be eaten fresh or brewed with tea, like lemon.
Reproduction methods for transplant
It is quite easy to propagate the chaenomeles you like. Gardeners use a variety of methods.
At home, the plant propagates by seed. They require long-term stratification for germination. Therefore, when sowing in the ground, the end of October is selected, when the soil begins to freeze. How to proceed:
- cut the ripe fruit and carefully select the seeds;
- make a groove in the ground 5-7 cm deep;
- spread the seeds at a distance of 15 cm from each other;
- sprinkle with soil, and then mulch with a layer of 10 cm.
Chaenomeles can also be grown from seeds at home. In this case, the seeds are wrapped in paper and kept in a refrigerator for 3-4 months. Then they are planted in a greenhouse. The soil is regularly moistened, the greenhouse is ventilated. After the emergence of shoots, the greenhouse is opened.
A popular breeding method for chaenomeles. To do this, choose semi-lignified shoots with 2-3 internodes. Cutting time is June. How to proceed:
- cut the stalk at an angle of 45 degrees below the kidney at a distance of 1-1.5 cm from it;
- cut the upper cut above the kidney at a distance of 0.5 cm horizontally and process with paraffin or wax;
- cut sheet plates by 1/2;
- dip the bottom cut into a growth stimulator;
- put in a jar of water so that the liquid only covers the cut;
- wrap the jar with a bag with holes for gas exchange.
Put the greenhouse in a shaded warm place.
By dividing the bush
Chaenomeles produces abundant root growth. Some of it can be used for reproduction. With a shovel with a sharp edge, they dig out part of the bush and immediately plant part of the plant in a new place. After planting, it is watered and shaded. When the quince gives the first new leaves, the shelter is removed.With this method of reproduction, the daughter plant produces smaller fruits than the mother plant.
The shoots are bent to the ground and pinned to the soil with a metal or wooden bracket. At the point of contact, to accelerate root formation, the bark is cleaned and sprinkled with a growth stimulant.
The variety you like can be grafted onto an existing plant in the garden. Methods are most often used: in the butt, in the split. It is best to carry out the operation in early spring, before the start of sap flow, or in summer. Before winter, the scion should have time to take root.
How to choose a variety for different regions of Russia
Chaenomeles is a warm and light-loving culture. The part that is located above the snow cover freezes. In order to choose a suitable variety, the frost resistance of the species must be taken into account. In the Moscow region, chaenomeles winters without shelter. But at temperatures below -25 degrees, annual shoots and fruit buds freeze. They showed themselves well: Garnet bracelet, Falconet, Scarlett, Cameo.
It is impossible to grow Japanese quince in Siberia without shelter. The shrub freezes out. But some gardeners cultivate the plant in heated greenhouses. There, the chaenomeles is created conditions close to the climate of his homeland. The Urals have hot, but short summers, and winters are long and harsh. The air humidity is different from the required one. But some varieties with increased frost resistance can be tried to grow with shelter for the winter. In Siberia and the Urals, it is possible to grow (with proper shelter) the Zubutlinskaya variety.
Nuances of planting culture
In order for the plant to please with decorativeness and give a good harvest, it must be properly planted.
In the open field
Chaenomeles requires certain conditions for successful fruiting:
- The soil can be any (sandy, loamy, clayey, sod-podzolic), but with a lot of humus. The exception is alkaline soils: on them, the plant becomes ill with chlorosis.
- The place should be sunny and warm. Ridges near the southern walls of garden buildings are perfect.
- In the garden, you should choose a place with a deep bed of groundwater: the roots of chaenomeles easily rot.
Planted in the right place, Japanese quince grows well, bears fruit successfully, is not damaged by pests and does not get sick.
In a greenhouse or greenhouse
Gardeners in regions with cold winters are wondering: how to plant chaenomeles so that it grows and bears fruit? To prevent freezing, it is recommended to place the quince in a greenhouse or greenhouse. At the dacha, a heated greenhouse is arranged, in which the temperature is maintained in winter from -5 to +5 degrees. Additional shelter is provided in an unheated greenhouse. This double protection helps prevent freezing in winter.
Features of agricultural technology
Growing chaenomeles is a simple undertaking. But you need to follow the advice of agronomists.
After the snow melts, the main spring activity is pruning. After removing the winter shelter, it is required to cut out frozen and dry shoots. Then you should add mature compost or humus.
In summer, it is recommended to apply phosphorus-potassium fertilizer after flowering. After the formation of ovaries, the formation of the crown should be carried out. This activity involves the removal of shoots creeping on the ground, cutting out weak branches. On a tree or shrub, it is required to leave up to 20 fruiting branches.
In the fall, mineral fertilizers are required: top dressing for the successful wintering of a tree.
Chaenomeles is also transplanted in the fall. At this time, chaenomeles takes root better.
Pruning is also done in the fall. How to prune a plant during this period:
- creeping shoots are removed;
- not ripe are shortened;
- the top is cut off for shelter for the winter;
- thinning pruning is carried out.
Autumn activities are necessary for the successful wintering of the plant.
Preparation for wintering
Preparation for wintering includes autumn activities and plant shelter. The shrubs are covered with cardboard boxes, the trees are wrapped in white lutrasil. The trunks of plants are tied with twigs to prevent gnawing.It is recommended to keep the plants covered with snow as high as possible.
Disease and pest control
Healthy chaenomeles rarely gets sick and is damaged by pests. But with excessive watering, its roots rot. With an excess of nitrogen in the soil, aphids appear on the leaves, chlorosis develops on calcareous soils.
To prevent trouble, follow the rules of care. When attacked by pests, it is recommended to spray the plantings with insecticides.
What problems do gardeners face
Often gardeners are interested in: why does the Japanese quince not bloom? Causes:
- lack of sunlight;
- excess alkali in the soil;
- lack of nitrogen fertilizers;
- an abundance of creeping shoots;
- illiterate formative pruning;
- freezing of fruit twigs in winter.
The lack of flowers in a plant may be the result of excessive soil moisture.
Popular varieties and their characteristics
Chaenomeles is the generic name for plants. Any variety can be called that. Orange trail can withstand frosts down to -29 degrees. The shoots of the plant are long (up to 1 m), have thorns. Blooms in May-June. Orange flowers are collected in clusters (5-6 pieces). The plant has a height of up to 1 m. Yellow fruits ripen in September. They taste like pineapple.
Variety value: fruit shrub and ornamental plant. Ubra (Rubra) is a tree up to 3 m high. The crown width is up to 2 m. It blooms with crimson flowers on last year's shoots. The plant's winter hardiness is low, freezes without shelter.
Chinese has a significant habit. The bush grows up to 3 m in diameter. In spring it has purple leaves, in summer - emerald. The flowers are white or pink. Too heat-loving plant: freezes without shelter. Рink lady (Pink lady) is an ornamental variety. Has pink flowers. The value of the plant - the tree grows low: up to 1.2 m.
Nikolin is a frost-resistant variety. The plant is very decorative: it has scarlet flowers. In May, the bush is strewn with crimson buds. Used for landscaping the site. Recommended for the Moscow region. The magnificent Crimson & Gold is the most decorative and compact variety. The bright orange flowers have yellow stamens. Blooms for 2-3 weeks. The plant is used to decorate the site.
Magnificent Nikolayn (Nikolin) - shrub up to 1.5 m. This is a frost-resistant variety. The fruits ripen in September. Their color is green-yellow. There are lemon notes in the taste. The plant is used for landscaping the site. Recommended for the Moscow region.
Rubra grandiflora, when blooming, strikes with the color of its leaves. They are reddish in the plant. The shrub grows up to 2.5 m. In May, crimson flowers bloom. Fruits are yellow, ripen in September. Their mass is up to 90 g. Nivalis is a plant with a gorgeous habit. The spherical bush has a diameter of up to 2 m. It blooms twice a year: the first time in May, the second in August. The flowers are white, fragrant.