The apple tree is a favorite tree for most gardeners, and all thanks to the fact that the crop is easy to care for and it is unpretentious. The wide range of uses of fruits, leaves and flowers in everyday life further adds to the popularity of fruit trees. Apple trees, like other plants, are susceptible to various diseases arising from some negative factors. It is worth considering in more detail the causes of the appearance of brown spots on the foliage, and how to deal with rust on the leaves of the apple tree.
What causes rust
The main cause of rust stains is due to the presence of fungus. Fruit crops planted next to conifers very often suffer. When they grow, you can find on the leaves of apple trees the appearance of star-shaped outgrowths, on which new spores are formed, which in spring time will be carried around by gusts of wind to the garden trees. After infection, the disease spreads through the leaves, shoots and fruits.
The most unfavorable regions for rust on apple trees are the Southern, Southwestern, Southeastern regions of Ukraine and the Republic of Crimea.
The period of active development of the fungus and how it is dangerous for the apple tree
The disease is fungal in nature and, after damage to the tree, interferes with the ability of the leaves to photosynthesize. The yield decreases markedly due to disruptions in water-mineral metabolism. The tree begins to wither right before our eyes. First, a rusty coating appears, then brown spots appear, then brown ones.
Additional damage is done to young shoots, from which it is already useless to wait for a harvest. Severe damage causes the death of young trees. Most often this happens at the beginning of summer - in June-July.
As soon as a disease is identified, it must be treated, otherwise you can lose all the fruit trees in the garden. Rust-affected apple trees die in a few years, during which the fungus develops more and more.
Signs of tree disease
Any stains on the foliage, or if the leaves have curled up, is a signal to the grower. Rust becomes noticeable from the moment the foliage blooms. Particular attention should be paid to plants in the last spring months.
Initially, round dots of different sizes appear on the leaves, having a green-yellow or light green-white color. Gradually they increase in size, the color changes to bright red, subsequently the foliage curls strongly. Parasitic spores begin to suck moisture out of the vegetative parts of the tree. If you start the disease, then it begins to affect the bark and shoots.
At the first appearance of rust, it is necessary to start treatment in order to prevent the spread of infection throughout the garden and to protect future fruits.
Systemic fungicides to fight fungal infection
To get rid of rust, fungicidal agents are most often used as control measures. They are best used when identifying a disease. The most effective are drugs related to contact or systemic contact.
All funds have approximately the same effect aimed at destroying the fungal colony. There is a defeat of spores, which, thanks to the active particles of the drug, will no longer be able to give rise to fungi.
It can be treated by applying several agents by alternation, which will prevent the parasite from getting used to the chemicals. The fungus is excellent at adapting to fungicidal agents. This happens very simply, in a spore form, waiting for an adverse effect occurs, and then the disease begins to develop much more actively.
Systemic fungicides are referred to as universal preparations, thanks to which, if applied correctly, the garden can be completely cured of red leaves and disease.
As for dosages, drugs are diluted in the following amount per bucket of water:
- "Strobi" - 2 grams;
- "Topaz" - 2 milliliters;
- Vectra - 2 grams;
- "Poliram" - 2 grams.
All of the above funds are diluted in the same amount, and therefore it is difficult to make a mistake in the manufacture of a medicinal solution. But "Teneba" is added to water in the amount of 40 grams.
It is worth knowing: if the garden crops have been treated for scab, then you do not need to additionally spray the trees from rust. The selected agent will have an effect on both pathogens.
The tool belongs to powerful drugs to fight the fungus. The release form is liquid or powder. One tree needs 2 liters per 10 square meters. Processing is carried out up to several times with a 14-day break between them.
It is recommended to spray trees in dry, calm weather. If it rains a few hours after using the drug, then re-treatment is not carried out, this time will be enough for the product to be absorbed.
The drug has some advantages that allow you to use the product at the time of flower formation. The fungicide poses no danger to bees.
Processing can be carried out at low temperature, high humidity. The agent is effective against various fungal diseases, it is especially successful in combating rust.
The active ingredient in this powerful drug is called bromuconazole. For a young tree, two liters of a diluted product are enough. Adult fruiting apple trees are sprayed with a solution of 10-15 liters.
The spray agent can be used a maximum of 3 times and must not be mixed with other products.
Copper preparations for the treatment of the disease
The rust fungus is successfully attacked by the Bordeaux liquid, which is considered to be one of the most well-known methods of treating the disease. A working 1% solution is used.
The first time the garden is cultivated in the spring when more or less warm weather is set. In hot weather, it is strictly forbidden to use the product due to the threat of burns on the trees.
There are also drugs that can fight rust on an apple tree.
Perfectly replaces Bordeaux liquid, has a granular form of release. The product dissolves easily in water. The advantage is that the solution is suitable for use in inclement weather.
Blue Bordeaux destroys pathogenic colonies along with spores. The tool is contact.
The main substance is copper. The drug also belongs to the contact group of substances. The product must be applied to the affected areas of the tree. The drug will not penetrate into the inner layers of the tree.
It is necessary to know that the use of "Abiga peak" is possible only in dry weather. To obtain a working solution in a bucket of water, you need to dilute 50 grams of the drug.
Consists of nitrogen and copper acetate. If you prepare a 0.25% solution, then it will neutralize all fungal spores.
The product is suitable for root watering. The benefit of the product is that it destroys rust and saturates the soil with useful components.
Both prophylactic and therapeutic agents can be used. The leaves are covered with a protective layer, and therefore the fungus cannot infect and spread throughout the apple tree.
During the fight against rust, conditions are created that are completely unsuitable for the fungus, but complete destruction cannot be achieved. You need 60 grams per bucket of water. The tool is contraindicated for use when hot weather is established.
The next group of medicines against red spots on the leaves and damage to fruits are preparations containing sulfur.
Colloidal sulfur in the form of a solution is recommended by gardeners as one of the most popular rust-fighting agents. To prepare it, you need water in the amount of 5 liters and sulfur powder - 40 grams.
The greatest effect occurs if the agent comes into contact with the affected culture. It is important to remember that colloidal sulfur is not used when trees are blooming.
The main component is sulfur. Convenient form of release, quickly and well dissolves in water. Does not create dust.
Biological preparations against rust stains and diseases of apple trees differ from other agents in that they improve the immune system of fruit crops and increase resistance to fungal diseases. No negative consequences were found during use.
The funds do not pose a danger to:
When using biological agents, the crop is completely safe for both adults and children.
If brown rust occurs, it is advisable to use this agent. The drug in the amount of 50 ml is added to 10 liters of water. Planriz effectively fights fungus and enhances the growth of young trees.
Refers to a very common means with a wide range of effects, including successfully combating rust. You can prepare a working solution as follows: dilute 100 ml of the product in 10 liters of water.
The first treatment is done after the buds have opened, and then twice a month throughout the season. When the apple trees start to bloom, the product is not used.
A drug with a huge number of positive reviews from gardeners. Trees can be processed throughout the growing season. To obtain a solution, you need to dilute 15 ml of the product in water - 10 liters.
It is possible to process not only trees, but also crops that are difficult to store.
Has established itself as a successful fungus control agent. To prepare a working solution, you need to dilute 30 grams of the product in 10 liters of water. Fruit trees are processed every 14 days during the growing season.
You can start spraying from the moment the buds begin to bloom. Stop using the product before harvesting the apples.
Now it becomes clear how to use biological preparations, if you wish, you can make a combination of several means at once. The use of tank mixtures is a very effective method for combating fungus.
Everything is very simple to prepare, for 10 liters of water you need to take:
- 50 ml Planriz;
- 50 ml "Ecoberin";
- 100 ml "Trichodermina";
- 100 ml of "Gaupsin";
- 30 grams of "Phytodoctor".
If the trees are already affected by the fungus, then it is necessary to process the culture up to 3 times a month, from the moment the buds bloom and until the time of harvest.
Technology and processing time
If the leaves of the apple trees are covered with rust, then you can fight the infection as follows:
- On the first day, as soon as diseased shoots appeared, they must be cut 7 cm lower than the affected area. Obligatory destruction of the source of the spread of the disease, for example, a diseased juniper. The trunk circle is cleared, the soil is treated with copper sulfate in the form of a solution.
- On the second day, spray the apple trees with a fungicidal solution. The choice of the drug depends on the growing season. Juniper also needs to be treated with the same product.
- On the fourth day, potassium monophosphate is used for foliar feeding of apple trees. Use of potassium humate for watering.
- On the seventh day - treat the fruit trees together with the juniper with the same fungicide that was chosen earlier.
- On the fourteenth day - ash liquor is used for processing apple trees.
- On the thirtieth day, a new fungicidal agent against the fungus is selected.
- On the thirty-seventh day - another fungicidal treatment.
- On the fortieth day - potassium monophosphate is used for foliar feeding of apple trees.
After the harvest is harvested, the apple trees undergo sanitary pruning, shoots are removed from the stem or root suckers. It is necessary to whitewash the trunk and the lower parts of the skeletal branches. "Fitolavin" is used for treating the trunk circle; mulching is additionally applied.
The beginning of the next season - copper sulfate is used to spray trees when the buds begin to bloom. You also need to process the juniper.
Before flowering begins, apple trees are processed using a tank mix.
Preventive measures to prevent infection
Any disease can be defeated if treatment is started in a timely manner. Protective measures can help keep the infection from spreading. This practice is called prevention, thanks to timely measures taken, garden trees can be saved.
To prevent the formation of fungus, you must:
- cleansing the garden - after the harvest is harvested, it is recommended to remove plant residues to the maximum;
- compliance with agrotechnical measures (timely processing, top dressing, correct watering);
- the use of fungicides for the treatment of apple trees;
- planting varieties resistant to fungal diseases.
If you inspect fruit crops in a timely manner to identify diseased trees and start treatment on time, losses can be avoided. Any ailment is always easier to prevent than to cure.
Why is juniper dangerous for an apple orchard
Not many gardeners are aware of the dangers of juniper bushes to apple trees. It is in them that rust pathogens arise and remain. Spores of this fungus are carried by the wind or on the legs of an insect to apple trees. In winter, rust is in the needles of a juniper, and in spring it revives and attacks the apple tree again.
In order to interrupt this process and not be left not only without a crop, but also without the entire garden, you should either get rid of the juniper, or transplant it from the apple trees over a long distance. Young shoots are especially susceptible to the influence of the fungus.
If there is no desire to transplant conifers, you should examine them for the presence of pathogens. They are characterized by the presence of a brown-rusty color on the needles. In this case, you should fight the disease.
- trim conifers;
- dig deep into the ground and spill it with boiling water;
- treat with fungicides;
- spraying trees and soil every spring;
- carry out regular care of the juniper.
However, even despite the complete destruction of coniferous bushes, rust may remain. Its spores are capable of covering distances of more than 50 km. The best way out is timely tree care.