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Quail breeding is a promising branch of agriculture available to private breeders. Quail eggs are more nutritious than chicken eggs, contain more phosphorus, magnesium, iron and B vitamins. Due to their beneficial properties, they are in demand, as well as protein-rich meat of miniature birds. Quails of the Manchu breed are productive in both directions.
Description, productivity and characteristics of the breed
The appearance of the Manchu quail:
- yellow and brown feathers alternate and form a variegated cover;
- light beak and paws;
- black specks on the breast of females;
- striped cap on the head of males.
Quails are brighter than quails, but there are fewer black specks in their plumage. Chicks of different sexes differ in behavior from the third week of life. Males stretch their necks and squeak. The breed belongs to the egg-meat direction. Manchus weigh 270 grams. With scrupulous selection of eggs, "heavy" individuals weighing 300 grams are hatched. The French variety reaches four hundred grams.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
The egg production of Manchu quails is at an average level - 220 eggs per year from one female. Egg weight reaches 12 grams. The survival rate of chicks is 80 percent. Females begin to lay in the fifth week of life.
Main pros and cons
The Manchu quail is inferior in egg production to the Japanese one, and in weight - to the Pharaoh breed. But novice breeders will find it easier to deal with the Manchus.
unpretentiousness in nutrition;
relatively low egg production
thermophilicity prevents breeding in cold climates;
when kept in private farms, the feed consumption is higher than with intensive breeding in poultry farms;
impulsive, capricious and fearful character.
Golden quail is interesting as a decorative breed. If you cross Manchus with Texas quails, you get fleshy hybrids weighing 500 grams. A calm atmosphere should reign around the house.
With harsh sounds, Manchu quails fly up in cages from fright and beat against the rods. Birds do not make good contact with humans and are not easy to handle. Squeezing the plumage hurts them.
When arranging supplies in a restaurant chain, there is a difficulty with large carcasses. Their sizes do not correspond to the standard portions, so the chefs refuse to take them. But when selling to private buyers and selling through stores, problems with birds do not arise. The main thing is to have permission from the sanitary inspection.
Maintenance and care at home
Manchu quails are kept in cages. They are more unpretentious compared to other breeds. But critical deviations in temperature, humidity and lighting cause a decrease in productivity and aggression in birds.
Quail cages are placed in an insulated barn or in a separate room in the house. Birds cannot be kept on a loggia, balcony or yard. The most acceptable option for a large number of quails is a special room without windows with a lighting, heating and ventilation system.
Quails are planted in common cages. For protection against drafts, it is recommended to use plywood box structures with a lattice front door. Arrangement requirements:
- stocking density - 6 adult birds per 30 square centimeters;
- the size of the lattice cells - 15x15 mm;
- litter - thick cardboard;
- lack of perches and nests.
Quails do not build shelters for eggs and incubate clutches on bedding. Young birds are planted denser to increase the likelihood of mating. The litter is changed daily. Feeders and drinkers are installed in the cage. Also, once a week, put dishes with sand for bathing.
The norm for quails is 20-22 degrees of heat, plus or minus 2 degrees. With a significant decrease in temperature, the maternal instinct disappears in the hens. When swinging from cold to warm and back, the birds attack each other.
Despite their small size, quails actively generate heat. The room with birds should be regularly ventilated, but not cooled. In a draft, Manchu quails lose their feathers and lay fewer eggs. An extractor hood will provide fresh air in winter. In the summer, it is sufficient to ventilate the house through an open window.
Birds are frightened by direct bright light. If the house faces south, they are shaded with blinds. In a room without windows, fluorescent lamps are installed. The permissible power of conventional luminaires is 50-60 watts.
Dry air makes quails thirsty and decreases appetite, which negatively affects the productivity and plumage of birds. The optimum humidity is 65 percent. With intensive heating in winter, containers with water are placed in the room.
Features of industrial content
How Manchu quails are grown in poultry farms:
- one large cage with an area of 20 square meters contains 700 birds;
- to accommodate quails, systems of cages containing 250 quails are used;
- cell complexes are equipped with egg collectors, drinkers and feeders.
The industrial content of Manchu quails differs from the domestic one. There are 35 quails per square meter. Livestock fed for meat are not separated by sex. To obtain eggs for sale, layers are kept separately from males and fed with special compound feed.
Wild quails find food in thickets of grass: small insects, plant seeds. Domestic birds are less active. Their diet consists of crushed grains and is designed to maintain metabolic balance and weight gain.
Food for Manchu quails is prepared independently or mixed feed is poured.
Manchu quail chicks need fortified feed. Therefore, ready-made mixtures form the basis of their diet.
How to feed hatched chicks:
- 1st day - give a mashed boiled egg;
- 2nd-4th day - add cottage cheese to the egg;
- 5th-7th day - add wheat groats and mixed feed into the egg-curd mixture;
- 8th-20th day - instead of eggs, add boiled carrots, soybean meal, meat waste.
In the first week of life, chicks are fed 5 times a day, from the second week - 3-4 times.
During growing up
Young birds are fed 3 times a day. The optimal feed consumption is 30 grams per animal.
The mixture is prepared from the products shown in the table:
|a piece of chalk||5|
With the onset of egg production, females are given cottage cheese, fishmeal.
To get meat
Quails and quails intended for fattening are seated separately. The room temperature is maintained at +22 degrees.
- in the morning and in the afternoon - vegetable food, vegetables;
- in the evening - crushed barley, oats, wheat, corn.
The fed birds are transferred to 4 meals a day.
Breeding the breed
For reproduction, choose 3-4 females and one male aged from two to eight months from different broods. A quail family is planted in one cage. When bred naturally, Manchu quails exhibit hierarchy in the flock. Matriarchy reigns among birds. The leader female is the first to approach the feeder and drive away weak companions. The leader of the flock lays the largest eggs. The duration of incubation of quail eggs is 17 days.
Leading females sometimes behave aggressively and peck at relatives. With age, the egg production of Manchu quails decreases. Older individuals are inferior in strength to young ones and often die under their beaks. Quail eggs lay eggs within a year, rarely two. Therefore, females that have passed the peak of egg production are transplanted into a separate cage and fattened.
To hatch chicks in an incubator, it is required to observe the temperature regime as carefully as when keeping adult birds. Basic rules for incubation breeding:
- the shelf life of eggs before laying is no more than five days;
- storage temperature - +12 degrees;
- lay eggs warmed up to room temperature in the incubator;
- choose medium specimens of the correct shape with a whole shell;
- before laying eggs, warm up the incubator to sixty degrees;
- turn eggs every 4 hours.
Temperature and humidity in the incubator:
|Temperature (in degrees Celsius)||37,7||37,2||37|
The hatched chicks are placed in a brooder, setting the temperature to +36 degrees. During the month, the temperature is reduced by 5 degrees every week. Monthly chicks are transplanted into a regular cage and kept under the same conditions as adult quails.
The following diseases are common among Manchu quails:
- pseudo-plague - causes green diarrhea, an unpleasant odor from the beak, throwing the head back and apathy. Quails can be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen. Depending on the stage, a complex of antibiotics is selected;
- psittacosis - the birds are disheveled, look untidy, suffer from seizures, which intensify and lead to death. Sick quails are removed from the common cage and treated with vitamin complexes;
- helminthiasis - parasites infect the respiratory tract, causing the birds to suffocate. For treatment, the drug "Thiabendazole" is prescribed;
- aspergillosis - a fungal infection often affects young animals, causing thirst, weakness, shortness of breath, blue beak and paws. The disease is difficult to cure on your own, so you should contact your veterinarian;
- alopecia - feathers fall out with a lack of vitamins A and B, sulfur and iodine, as well as due to a draft or overheated air in the room. For treatment, vitamin supplements are introduced into the diet of birds and the temperature in the house is regulated.
A common problem with quail is fright injuries. The birds are trying to fly in the cage, injuring their wings and paws.
Layers have problems with laying eggs:
- retention of eggs - occurs in young females due to a weak tone of the oviduct and a lack of vitamins;
- prolapse of the oviduct - observed with premature oviposition, vitamin deficiency D.
To prevent pathologies of egg-laying, quails are given fodder yeast, fishmeal.
How much does it cost and where to buy?
Average prices for Manchu quails of different ages:
- daily allowance - 25-30 rubles;
- weekly - 35-50 rubles;
- up to a month - 70-120 rubles;
- monthly - 75-180 rubles.
The cost of adults ranges from one hundred to two hundred rubles.
The following Russian farms are engaged in breeding Manchu quails:
- "Uralskaya Quail" - sell eggs, chicks, make cages and equipment;
- "Ptichiy Dvor" - located in Krasnodar, there is a representative office in Moscow, specializes in the breeding of various quail breeds, makes brooders, cages and turnkey farms;
- "My Quail" - a network of family farms for the sale of young animals and equipment.
Also, advertisements for the sale of birds and hatching eggs are given by private breeders of the Moscow region.