Plum Ussuriyskaya has established itself exclusively on the positive side, it is appreciated for its resistance to adverse environmental factors, subzero temperatures. Thanks to this, this fruit crop can be cultivated everywhere, even in regions with harsh winters. In order to achieve the maximum possible yield indicators from the Ussuri plum, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the rules for planting it and the intricacies of care.
The history of breeding the Ussuri plum
The homeland of the Ussuri plum is the Primorsky Territory. It is impossible to meet her on the territory of the Far East and China. The culture was discovered by Russian settlers on the ruins of an ancient village in Primorsky Krai. After that, the plant was placed in the country, where the breeding work took place.
After some time, the Ussuriyskaya plum was actively cultivated already in the gardens of the Far East. By means of cross-pollination with high-quality forms of Chinese plum, specimens with a high level of adaptation to specific climatic conditions were bred. So the Ussuriyskaya plum became a self-sufficient hybrid with increased frost resistance and productivity.
Characteristics and features of culture
A distinctive feature of the Ussuri plum is its frost resistance, which explains its active use as a material for breeding varieties resistant to low temperatures. The fruits have many beneficial properties. With their regular use, memory improves, immunity increases, and the risk of a heart attack decreases. In addition, plum has antipyretic and wound healing effects.
Description of the tree
The Ussuriyskaya plum is characterized as a low plant, but it cannot be classified as a dwarf. Its height is on average 2.5-3 meters, but there are specimens of 4 meters. The wood color of a full-fledged tree is gray or brown. A feature of the Ussuri plum is considered to be the rounded shape of the crown, thin and fragile branches that are directed upwards.
There are two types of Ussuri plum:
- With a thickened crown, outwardly similar to a cylinder, a pyramid and a panicle.
- With a discharged crown, which has a vase-like shape.
The leaf apparatus of the Ussuri plum is distinguished by a light green color and a smooth surface. The underground part of the plant is quite developed, it is located shallowly - superficially. This feature of the tree works against it - it suffers drought painfully. In addition, when loosening the soil, the roots are often injured, which leads to the formation of overgrowth.
The flowering phase of the Ussuri plum falls in May, before the appearance of the leaf mass. Small snow-white flowers are formed in large numbers, they adorn the entire tree. They are not afraid of frosts up to three degrees.
Taste and appearance of fruits
The fruits of the Ussuri plum can be round, pear-shaped or cone-shaped. The color, depending on the variety, is yellow, purple, dark cherry, light green, and also very dark black. Consumer characteristics are high, the pulp stands out for its juiciness, sweet and sour taste and light bitterness, and has many useful properties. Fruit sizes vary from 2 to 25 grams.
The Ussuri plum is not a self-fertile tree, which requires placing pollinating plants near it with a similar flowering period. The best option is the presence of 2-3 varieties of plums on the site; Sandy cherry is also suitable.
Fruiting and productivity
Ussuriyskaya begins to yield a harvest of plum already 3-4 years after planting it in a permanent place, when grown from a stone, this period increases by 2 years. The tree gives a stable and plentiful harvest for 20 years, 15-20 kilograms can be harvested from one plant. Harvesting should be done a few days before reaching removable maturity, otherwise, when fully ripe, they quickly crumble. Fruits should ripen in a warm room.
Since the Ussuriyskaya plum painfully tolerates a lack of moisture in the soil, it needs additional moisture during the dry season. The frequency of watering should be 1 time in 10-12 days, taking into account 9-10 liters per planting.
Frost and drought resistant
The degree of frost resistance of the Ussuri plum is assessed as high. The tree can normally tolerate temperatures as low as -40 degrees. The culture, in contrast to the increased winter hardiness, has a low level of drought resistance.
Susceptibility to diseases and pests
The Ussuriyskaya plum has no particular immunity to major diseases and harmful insects. The plant often affects the moth, small aphid, sawfly, leafworm. Of the diseases, it is oppressed by gray rot, clasternosporia, coccomycosis, and root cancer.
Also, the tree does not have sufficient resistance to soot fungus, rust, fruit rot. In order to avoid problems in the future, the Ussuriyskaya plum must be treated with special agrochemicals and kept in conditions comfortable for it.
Required soil composition
For normal growth and development of the tree, it is recommended to choose an area with fertile soil and a neutral environment. To correct the acidity level, reduce it, effectively use lime or dolomite flour at the rate of 200 grams per 1 square meter. For better rooting, the soil before planting should be enriched with useful substances: rotted manure, wood ash, superphosphate.
The harvest of the Ussuri plum is notable for its versatility. It can be used for homemade preparations, and for preparing compotes, juice, desserts. The fruits are very tasty when eaten fresh.
How to plant and grow a tree on the site
The best time for planting seedlings is spring, when the soil warms up enough. Works are mainly carried out in April at an air temperature of 8-15 degrees. The landing site should be well-lit and protected from through winds.
The technology for planting Ussuriyskaya plum provides for:
- Digging a hole 1 meter deep and 80 × 80 centimeters in size.
- Installation of a wooden peg 15-20 centimeters from the center of the pit. Its height should be 1-1.5 meters.
- Placing and sprinkling the roots of the seedling in such a way that the soil layer is 5-7 centimeters lower from the location of the root collar.
- Watering a young plant with 2-3 buckets of water.
- Mulching the soil to retain moisture.
In order for the seedling to quickly adapt and grow, it is necessary to straighten its roots on different sides when planting. Do not allow them to bend, overlap.
For watering, a groove must be formed around the tree. To avoid oxygen starvation of the roots, the soil in the trunk circle should be loosened after each moistening. The formation of the crown begins from the second year of the life of the plum.
Feeding procedures before the flowering phase are performed with potassium nitrate (30 grams per 10 liters of water). And after the flowers appear - a solution of Zircon (3 grams per 5 liters of water). When the fruiting stage is over, the plum is fed with superphosphate at the rate of 30 grams per 10 liters of water.
The best varieties of the Ussuri plum and their description
Among the popular varieties that are relatively unpretentious in care and high yields, it is worth noting.
Plum refers to plants with an average ripening period, the growing season is 60 days from the date of flowering. It is recommended to grow it in regions with a temperate climate. Varietal characteristics: the tree is medium-sized (4-5 meters), the crown is wide pyramidal, the color of its shoots is burgundy, the color of the wood is brown.
Round purple fruits have a dense layer of waxy bloom. The productivity indicators of the variety reach 60 kilograms per planting.
This variety attracts attention with its lush and abundant flowering. The degree of frost resistance of the tree is at a high level (up to -40 degrees), the yield indicators are almost 20 kilograms (from one planting). Despite the small size of the fruits, their taste is quite pleasant, harmonious, and the aroma is pronounced. The Festive plum enters the fruiting phase 4-5 years after planting in a permanent place.
The crown of the plant is large, spreading. The height of the tree is about 2 meters, the yield is high, the fruiting is stable. The consumer qualities of the fruits are excellent, the tasting score is 4.6 points. The weight of black-red plums is 12-16 grams. Good winter hardiness.
A distinctive feature of the variety is sweet and juicy fruits with a slight sourness. Harvesting takes place in the second half of August. The tree forms fruit abundantly, periodically.
The variety shows high productivity when grown on wet and clayey soil, does not tolerate an acidic environment, it is sick and bears poorly in it. Low temperature resistance is high.
The plant is intended for cultivation in regions with cold climates, where the period of low temperatures is quite long. Its crown is spreading, the fruits are small with yellow flesh and a fibrous structure. There is no bitterness in the plums.
The mid-ripening Ussuri plum shows itself well when grown in cold regions. Rounded red fruits have a whitish bloom. Consumer characteristics are high: the pulp is sweet and juicy, the sourness is not felt, the aroma is pronounced.
Harvesting is carried out at the end of summer. The tree is not afraid of subzero temperatures, it bears fruit stably and abundantly.
A two-meter plantation forms a crown in the form of a deep basket. Fruiting occurs every year, and the harvest takes place in August. For pollination, next to the Zolotoy Niva, there should be such varieties as Red Ball, Russian Plum, Skoroplodnaya.
The color of the pulp and skin is yellow, like nectarine. Plums are distinguished by their juiciness, sweet taste and delicate structure. The bone is easily detachable. Reviews of the variety are predominantly positive.
The color of the fruits is bright yellow, the shape is round, the top is slightly flattened. The taste characteristics of the variety are excellent: the pulp is sweet and juicy, the aroma is pronounced. The plant is endowed with sufficient immunity in relation to the main ailments and parasitic individuals.
The variety is actively cultivated in regions with severe winters, including in the Urals. The landing site should be chosen in well-lit glades, with nutritious soil and neutral acidity.
Plum Ussuriyskaya is an excellent option for regions with a cold climate and frequent temperature changes. Even a novice gardener can grow a plentifully fruiting tree. To obtain high results, it is enough to follow the basic recommendations for planting, care and give preference to frost-resistant varieties.