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Some black currant varieties are specially bred for Siberia. Such shrubs perfectly adapt to short hot summers and do not die in frosty winters. In addition to black, you can plant red and white currants in your garden. Each variety has its positive aspects and requires minimal maintenance.
Climatic characteristics of the region
Siberia occupies a huge area - from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Such a vast region is characterized by climatic diversity. In the north - a subarctic climate, in the center - continental, in the south - hot Asian steppes.
Siberia is considered the coldest region on Earth. Winters are long and very frosty here. Spring comes late - snow melts only in mid-April. In May, the air warms up to 14 degrees Celsius. In the northern regions, spring warming occurs in June.
Summer is hot, sunny, almost not rainy, but short. The average summer temperature is 20-25 degrees. Night frosts can last until mid-June, then recede, and return by the end of August. Autumn in Siberia is rapid, there is a rapid transition from summer to winter. In early September, the air temperature can be equal to 14 degrees Celsius, and by the end of this month, snow sometimes falls. True, winter comes to Siberia in early November.
What criteria should a variety of currants meet for Siberia
The climate of Siberia is not very suitable for growing berries. However, Russian breeders have developed new varieties of currants that can adapt to the conditions of a dry short summer and a long frosty winter. For the successful cultivation of currants, you must also follow the tips for caring for this crop.
Criteria that a variety must meet for Siberia:
- frost resistance;
- the ability to withstand sharp temperature fluctuations;
- excellent taste characteristics;
- resistance to fungal diseases and insect attacks;
- rapid ripening of berries;
- good yield.
Recommended varieties for Siberia
For this region, varieties have been bred that perfectly tolerate Siberian frosts and quickly come to life in spring. However, sudden spring frosts, although they do not affect the state of the buds, are capable of destroying half of the blossoming flowers.
It is also called the Black Pearl. It was withdrawn in 1992. Currant bushes are of medium height (up to 1.3 meters). Several brushes with 5-8 berries on each grow on a branch. The mass of one berry is 2-3 grams. It is possible to collect 4 kilograms of the crop from the bush.
The best crop bred by Russian breeders. It bears excellent fruit, rarely gets sick, does not die in cold weather. The culture is self-fertile, which is why it does not need pollinating insects. The bush is of medium height, spreading. Berries are sweet and sour, juicy, weighing 2.5 grams.
The culture begins to actively bear fruit only 3 years after planting. It is possible to harvest 4 kilograms of the crop from one plant. The berries ripen in early July. For the winter, it is advisable to insulate the bushes, although even without shelter they can easily tolerate thirty-degree frosts.
The culture is winter-hardy, self-fertile, with a late ripening period. The bush is tall, with straight stems, not very dense. 8-12 berries appear on each brush. The weight of one is 1.6-3.6 grams. The skin is black, slightly shiny, thin.
A hybrid crop bred from a Scandinavian and Belarusian variety in 1994. It tolerates frosty winters and hot summers equally well. Bushes - dense and spreading, up to 2 meters long. Each brush has 5-8 berries. The harvest ripens in July. It is possible to collect 4 kilograms of fruit from the bush.
A variety bred specifically for Siberia in 1997. The bush is low (up to 1.5 meters). The berries are oval, medium-sized, weighing 2 grams. 3.5 kilograms of the crop are harvested from the bush.
Red currant bred by the Ural breeders. The bush is compact, not very high (up to 1.2 meters). Berries (about 20 pieces) ripen on clusters up to 7 centimeters long. The weight of one is 1.7 grams. Productivity - 3.5-9.5 kilograms per plant.
Cultures with red fruits
Wild varieties of red currants can be found in Siberian forests. However, in the summer cottages, these bushes did not take root for a long time. All varieties of red currants planted in Siberia are hybrid. The culture adapted to the climatic characteristics of this region was obtained through the crossing of wild frost-resistant and southern fruitful varieties.
A well-known variety in Western Europe. The bush is compact, up to 1.5 meters high. It is a self-fertile crop with pinkish berries that have a transparent thin skin. The weight of one is 1.5-2.5 grams. Up to 15 berries can appear on one brush. It is possible to collect up to 9 kilograms of harvest from each bush.
An old self-fertile variety that ripens perfectly in all Russian regions. The bush is compact, of medium height. 6-8 fruits grow on one berry cluster. The weight of one small berry is 0.7 grams. The culture tolerates frosty winters and summer droughts well. The berries are red, transparent, but slightly sour. Mainly grown for conservation.
Jonker Van Tets
A Dutch self-pollinated variety that appeared in Russia in 1992. The bush is tall, with long and straight stems. Up to 10 berries appear on each brush. The mass of one is 0.7-1.5 grams. The fruits have a sweet, slightly sour taste, they are juicy, they are eaten fresh and canned for the winter. It is possible to pick up to 7 kilograms of berries from one plant.
Self-fertile culture with early fruiting and tasty sweet berries. The bush is low, with a dense crown. The berries are red, transparent, small, the weight of one is 0.5 grams. Used for conservation and fresh consumption.
Unlike red and black currants, white currants are much sweeter and tastier. However, this type is not very popular among summer residents. Although white transparent berries make excellent jam or preserves. To get jelly, you don't even need to add gelatin to the syrup, because there is so much pectin in the fruits. Aromatic wine and liqueurs are made from white currant berries.
Grade bred in 2005. Bushes - short, compact. Berries are medium, the weight of one is 1.5 grams. Productivity - 6.5 kilograms per plant. The berries are sweet, with a slight sourness and large seeds.
A variety bred for the Siberian region in 1991. A bush of medium height (up to 1.5 meters), slightly spreading. Brushes - 5 centimeters long. The berries are small (0.5 grams), but sweet. Up to 2 kilograms of harvest are harvested from one bush.
The sweetest varieties
Among the huge variety of black currants, you can choose the sweetest varieties. In the berries of such crops, the sugar content is 10-12 percent. Due to their excellent taste characteristics, sweet currant varieties are grown for consumption or preservation. Popular varieties: Bagheera, Triton, Green Haze, Nina, Selechenskaya-2.
Bred in Sweden, it is perfectly adapted to frosty winters. The bush is tall, but not spreading. On one brush, from 7 to 12 centimeters long, 6-13 berries grow. The mass of one is 0.9 grams. Self-fertile culture begins to bear fruit only 3 years after planting. 3.5 kilograms of the crop are harvested from the bush.
Disease and pest resistant varieties
Powdery mildew and leaf spots (septoria and anthracnose) are considered common currant diseases. Under favorable conditions for the development of diseases, you can lose half, and sometimes the entire crop. Breeders have developed new varieties of black currant with excellent immunity. Such crops tolerate severe winters well, quickly revive and bear fruit, are not afraid of the main enemies of the shrub - kidney mites and gall aphids. Popular varieties: Binar, Selechenskaya, Titania.
Winter-hardy culture with medium-sized berries (up to 1.4 grams). The bush is tall and compact. Each cluster, 4-8 centimeters long, grows 5-7 berries. The culture rarely suffers from powdery mildew, anthracnose, and is not affected by kidney mites.
The best large-fruited varieties
Many summer residents prefer to grow large-fruited currants. The berries of the best varieties of large black currants are large, juicy, sweet with a slight sourness. The mass of one is from 2 to 8 grams.
The culture was bred by breeders, especially for cultivation in Western and Eastern Siberia. It is a hybrid crop perfectly adapted to frosty winters and short summers. The bush of the variety is Vigorous, spreading, low (up to 1.5 meters in length). One thin brush grows from 6 to 12 large berries. The crop can be harvested at the end of July until mid-August.
The variety, bred by Swedish breeders, appeared in Russia in the 90s. The bush is raised, with straight long stems. Height - 1.5 meters. Begins to bear fruit in July. Each brush grows up to 20 berries. The mass of one is 4 grams.
The bush is compact, with straight shoots, 1.9 meters long. Up to 14 berries are formed in each brush, the weight of one is 4-6 grams. Fruits are large, sweet, aromatic and juicy.
The variety was bred only in 1999. The crown of the bush is not spreading, the shoots grow upward and reach a length of almost two meters. Fruiting occurs at the end of June and lasts until mid-July. It is a self-pollinated crop. Each cluster produces 10-12 fruits. The berries are large, sweet, the weight of one is 5-7 grams. It is possible to collect 5.5 kilograms of the crop from each bush.
The variety appeared only in 2004. Bushes are erect and low. 7-10 berries appear on each brush. The mass of one is 5 grams. 2 kilograms of the crop are harvested from the bush.
Early maturing varieties
Early varieties ripen in late June and early July. Such varieties quickly come to life after frost, bloom in mid-May. In case of spring frosts, up to 50 percent of flowers die.
The variety has been known since 1974. The bush is dense, compact, tall. The berries are medium in size, the weight of one is 1.1-2.4 grams. Up to 2.5 kilograms of harvest are harvested from the bush.
Gift to Curios
An early maturing variety obtained in 2004. The bush has low, straight stems. Berries are large (weighing 1.9-3.6 grams), sweet and sour, with a small amount of seeds. This self-fertile culture bears excellent fruit, rarely gets sick.
An early variety with a medium-sized bush. Crown density is medium. Berry clusters are short (up to 4 centimeters). The berries are large, weighing 2-4 grams. Self-fertile culture. It tolerates frosty winters and summer droughts.
Following the early currants, mid-ripening varieties ripen. The fruiting period is from mid-July to mid-August. Berries are eaten fresh or canned for the winter.
A self-fertile variety bred especially for Siberia. The bush is tall, with straight long stems, dense foliage. The brushes are 6.5 centimeters long, each growing up to 7 berries. The mass of one berry is 2-4 grams.
Shrub - semi-spreading and medium-sized. Berries are of medium size (weighing 1.1-1.6 grams). It is possible to harvest 3.8 kilograms of the crop from one plant.
Varieties of late ripening
Late varieties ripen in August and bear fruit until mid-September. Plants are winter-hardy, have a pleasant taste, sweetish-sour berries. True, the September variety, although it bears fruit before the first frost, however, has sour fruits. The berries of this currant are used for conservation. There are other varieties, with a late ripening period: Mila, Harmony.
A distinctive feature of this variety is self-fertility and large berries. Bushes - low (up to 1 meter), spreading. The mass of one berry is 2.5-4.5 grams. You can harvest 3.5 kilograms of the crop from the bush.
Tips and tricks for planting and grooming
Black currants can take root on any soil, but it is advisable to fertilize the soil with organic matter and minerals once a year. The culture does not like acidic and swampy soil. If the soil is too clayey, you can add some sand, compost, superphosphate and potassium sulfate. The acidity of the soil is reduced with lime, wood ash or dolomite flour.
How and when to plant
It is advisable to plant currants in a sunny place, in the southwestern side of the site. The bushes of this culture tolerate slightly shaded places, but in full shade they begin to hurt a lot and bear fruit poorly.
You can plant young stems in the ground in the spring (at the end of April) or at the beginning of September (3 weeks before the onset of the first frost). First, you need to prepare a planting site for the seedling. A small hole is dug in the ground, 50 centimeters deep. The excavated soil is mixed with rotted compost (bucket) and mineral additives (50 grams of superphosphate and potassium sulfate).
It is better to buy a seedling in a special nursery. Young plants should be no more than one year old, and their height should be 40 centimeters. The stems should have buds. The seedlings should have healthy roots 20 centimeters long. Before planting, the roots of the bush are placed for a day in Kornevin's solution (to stimulate growth).
The seedling is dipped obliquely onto the fertilized soil, covered with the remaining soil. The soil is tamped, watered with 8 liters of water. The land around the bush is mulched with sawdust.
We provide proper care for the bushes
With good care, the shrubs will bear fruit well and rarely get sick. It is advisable to water the shrubs during the flowering period and the formation of ovaries in dry season. This technique will almost double the yield. Pour up to 20 liters of water under one bush.
Every year in the fall, after leaf fall, pruning is carried out. The twigs are shortened, thinned out. In the spring, before bud break, dry and diseased shoots are removed. Each year, several old branches are completely cut off, leaving annual or biennial ones. By cutting off old stems and leaving young ones, they rejuvenate the bush.
When the flowering period comes, summer residents do not need to worry about pollinating insects. After all, most of the new varieties are self-fertile. The currant blooms in mid-May and often falls under spring frosts, which causes half of the crop to die.
Ripens, depending on the variety, from June to August. The ripening time difference is two weeks. The berries are picked as soon as they are ripe.
For the prevention of diseases, the bushes are sprayed with fungicides, a solution of copper sulfate, 8% urea. Colloidal sulfur and garlic tincture are used for pest control. For the winter, the bushes are bent to the ground and covered with agrofibre.