For what crops is vetch used as a green manure, when to sow and grow

For what crops is vetch used as a green manure, when to sow and grow

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Sowing and growing green manure always pays off. They can be used to sow both plots where crops will be grown in the future, and fallow. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of vetch green manure, after which crops it can be sown, the timing and rules of planting, how to care for the plants, when and how to mow. In front of which crops, vetch should not be planted.

The benefits and harms of vetch green manure

The plant belongs to the legume family and has all the distinctive features: a long flexible branching stem with paired leaves, red-purple inflorescences, from which brown beans are formed, each of which contains up to 10 graphite-colored seeds. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria live on the roots of the plant.

The vetch can be spring and winter. Both varieties are used as siderates. What benefits can a plant sown as a siderat give:

  • accumulates nitrogen in the soil, the element is in a form available for subsequent crops;
  • roots strengthen and loosen the soil;
  • vetch is capable of disinfecting the soil, preventing the growth of fungi, the growth of weeds;
  • the green mass is embedded in the soil, but some can be sent to livestock feed (this is an excellent nutritious feed containing vitamins and protein) or put into a compost heap;
  • flowering plants attract bees and other pollinators;
  • winter vetch protects the soil from freezing;
  • increases crop yields by a third, because it serves as an excellent green fertilizer.

The harm lies in the fact that the flexible stems lie under their own weight and support them on the ground. Overstretched vetch can form seeds, they fall to the ground and then germinate, this time becoming a weed.

What crops are used

You can not sow after crops of the same family with her - beans, peas, beans. The soil can contain bacteria and fungi that cause typical diseases. It is recommended to sow vetch in front of all crops (vegetables, fruits, strawberries, roots and herbs, cabbage, potatoes, onions), but especially before those that need a lot of nitrogen.

Spring vetch attracts bees to the site, so it can be planted in such a way that its blooming should take place during the flowering of shrubs and trees.

It is better to sow siderat in a mixture with cereals: oats or rye. Tall, erect plants will support the soft vetch and prevent it from falling to the ground. The mixture is prepared from seeds in a ratio of 50 to 50, mixed well and sown in rows.

Boarding rules and dates

You can sow vetch in the garden even when the soil warms up to 4 ° C. It is allowed to continue sowing until the end of summer, during the season it will be possible to sow green manure 3 times. It grows quickly, in about a month.

Before winter, the culture is sown from mid-October to November, so that the seeds do not sprout, but remain in the soil. They will hatch in the spring as soon as the temperature rises to a level sufficient for the growing season of the crop.

How to sow:

  • prepare the site, remove all remnants of the previous culture from it;
  • dig a shovel onto a bayonet;
  • fertilize with organic matter or minerals if the soil is poor in nutrients;
  • draw grooves 7-8 cm deep at a distance of 10 cm from each other;
  • sow seeds manually at a distance of 3-5 cm (per hundred square meters - about 1.5 kg of seeds);
  • cover the rows with earth.

If the soil is dry at the time of planting, pour water over it until it gets 10 cm wet.

Expert opinion

Zarechny Maxim Valerievich

Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.

It is not recommended to sow vetch on strongly acidic soils, sandy and arid or waterlogged, salt marshes. Such growing conditions are poorly tolerated by the plant. The culture loves and grows better on neutral or slightly acidic soils, therefore, acidic soils must be prepared before sowing: add lime and evenly distribute.

Care activities

Watering and feeding is all that plants need. If the cultivation takes place in the summer, then the green manure needs to be watered, especially in the heat. Vika grows quickly, but for this she will need top dressing. 2 weeks after germination, it must be fed with complex mineral fertilizers.

Timing of mowing

Siderat is cut in a month and a half after germination. By this time, it will reach a height of 15-20 cm. If the mowed mass is supposed to be embedded in the soil, then it is mowed 1.5-2 weeks before planting the next crop. During this time, the stems and leaves will have time to partially rot. Plants are cut and embedded in the ground to a depth of 10 cm. Shallow embedding allows the roots to remain partially intact to preserve nodules on them. In order for the green mass to rot faster and better, it is advisable to water the earth with an EM preparation that accelerates fermentation.

It is impossible to delay the harvesting of green manure. After flowering, its stems sharply coarse, become tough. The decay time is increased.

What crops is not suitable

In the place where the vetch grew, you should not plant any kind of legumes, as well as beets and garlic. These crops have the same diseases and pests. There is a possibility that crops will be infected and diseases will have to be fought. Instead of increasing the yield, there will be harm.

Vika as a green manure is sown in agricultural fields and private plots. This is one of the best green manure plants that improve and nourish the earth, saturate it with useful substances, especially easily available nitrogen, as a result, the yield of subsequent crops increases significantly. The roots strengthen the soil, disinfect, protect from diseases, fungi, pests, trap snow in winter and warm the soil. Weeds do not grow on the site sown with green manure, it is not necessary to weed it. Vetch seeds retain their germination well, germinate amicably. To consolidate the result, it is recommended to sow vetch like green manure every season.

Watch the video: Cover Crops. Hairy Vetch Going to Seed (May 2022).