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Trees, as well as their owners, gardeners, need a balanced diet. Providing them with the substances necessary for growth and fruiting is not such a simple task, because it is necessary to take into account the type of tree, the stage of its development and the time of year. Fertilizer introduced at the wrong time can nullify all the efforts of the gardener and the efforts spent on cultivating the garden for several years. Experienced fruit lovers know that too early or, on the contrary, late feeding of certain compounds can reduce productivity or make the fruits tasteless.
General principles for fertilizing pears
Fertilizer for pears and apple trees do not differ much from each other, since both of these species belong to the same family. These fruit beauties just like people prefer healthy separate nutrition. At the same time, in spring, filling the soil with nutrients can be considered as breakfast for a tree, providing it with energy for the whole summer. Summer top dressing is a lunch of several dishes that will serve as a source of nutrients for the formation of ovaries and fruits, and autumn top dressing, as well as dinner for humans, will provide the tree with a supply of nutrients for a period of long hibernation. It is this scheme that has been successfully used throughout the world, and it has never failed.
Pear: top dressing and care
What exactly to feed a pear garden at different time periods:
|Season||Fertilizer used||Fertilizer exposure area|
|Spring||Nitrogen-containing salts (urea and urea) - after snow melt, organics - after flowering||The formation and growth of leaves and young shoots, the formation of healthy ovaries|
|Summer||Nitrogen content of top dressing (non-root), microelements||Strengthening resistance to diseases and pests, fruit development and the formation of young wood|
|Autumn||Potassium phosphate fertilizers, ash and organic||Preparing for wintering, ripening|
Thoughtless feeding, even with knowledge of this principle, can lead to adverse consequences, including the death of a tree. Moderation and strict adherence to instructions is important in everything.
Spring dressing - norms and deadlines
The first top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers is carried out by some gardeners along the snow crust, so that when it melts, the nutrients immediately go into the soil. Is it possible to feed a pear in this way - a big question, because only nitrogen fertilizers have the ability to “weather”, losing most of their useful qualities. It would be much more reasonable to introduce urea or urea into the soil in the form of a solution or under digging, closing the granules to a depth of at least 5 cm.
When choosing a method for applying nitrogen, you should pay attention to the condition of the soil and the presence of precipitation.
- With high humidity and during rains, you can scatter them on the surface of the soil and slightly dig it.
- In dry weather and in the absence of rain, fertilizers are diluted with water and poured onto the soil surface or in specially prepared “mines” for fertilizers.
It is recommended to use nitrogen fertilizers in the form of granules or powder (purchased), as well as organics for spring dressing of pears.
|Fertilizer name||Mode of application||Application rate|
|Ammonium nitrate||It is applied only in the form of a solution or for digging without leaving it on the surface (it quickly disappears). It is recommended to breed in a proportion of 1 part of saltpeter to 50 parts of water. To apply only on moist soil with the subsequent watering so that nitrogen penetrated to the roots||No more than 30 g per square meter of the trunk circle|
|Urea||The entire amount of fertilizer is diluted in 5 liters of water, after which the solution is poured along the perimeter of the crown into shallow grooves or into “shafts”. Preliminary watering and subsequent moistening of the soil is required||From 80 to 120 g per plant (dosage depends on its size and age)|
|Nitroammofoska||It is carried out by irrigation with a fertilizer solution in the proportion of 1 part nitroammophoska to 200 parts of water. It is not recommended to combine with organic||Up to 30 liters of wood mortar|
|Green fertilizers (infusion of grass and chicken droppings)||Two buckets of weed grass (dandelions and other first greens) are poured with 2 buckets of water with the addition of a kilogram of bird droppings. Insist mixture for at least a week. For feeding, a liter of infusion is bred in a bucket of water. This remedy is used at the end of pear flowering.||Up to 25 liters woodgrain|
All nutrient solutions for the pear with nitrogen must be prepared shortly before use. Ideally, the time interval between the dissolution of fertilizers and their entry into the soil should not exceed 12 hours.
Feeding pears in the summer: ways and means
Summer top dressing is carried out from the last decade of June. At this time, the pear is already fading, and its growth is already quite clearly visible. At this time, it is allowed to continue feeding the trees with nitrogen fertilizers, but by the non-root method. In this case, the concentration of the solution may be higher than with spring application. This will also contribute to the protection of plants from fungal diseases.
From mid-July, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers begin to be applied to the soil, but not earlier than 15 days after the last foliar fertilizing. To replenish the necessary elements in this period, use:
- potassium sulfate;
- phosphorite flour;
Complex fertilizers are also popular: nitroammophosk, ammophos, nitrophos and others. Trace elements are also added to the solutions. In general, the standards for the use of these compounds are as follows:
- phosphorus-containing substances - up to 300 g per bucket of water;
- potassium salt - up to 100 g per bucket of water;
- boron compounds - up to 20 g per bucket of water;
- copper-containing preparations - up to 5 g per 10 l of water;
- means with magnesium - no more than 200 g per 10 liters of water;
- zinc sulfate - up to 10 g per bucket of water.
A mixture of these minerals and trace elements can be introduced into the soil, however, a more noticeable effect can be expected from foliar application, in which the crown of a pear along with skeletal branches and a strain is sprayed with the prepared mixture.
Autumn top dressing pears
Autumn feeding of the pear garden is carried out in stages. Since mid-August, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are completely eliminated, while the volume of potassium and phosphorus is increased. To thoroughly prepare the trees for wintering, you need to prepare a solution of 10 liters of water, a tablespoon of potassium chloride and 2 tablespoons of superphosphate. The resulting solution is poured into the barrel circle at the rate of 10 l / sq. m. area limited by the projection of the crown on the soil. In addition, a glass of ash per square meter of soil is introduced for digging to a depth of at least 10 cm.
You may also be interested in an article in which we talk about the problems encountered when growing pears.
How to fertilize an apple tree in autumn
When not Feeding a Pear Orchard
Feeding pears is not so difficult, and it is important for gardeners to notice signs of an “overdose” of minerals and trace elements in time. So, with an excess of nitrogen, trees grow throughout the summer, growing large volumes of green mass to the detriment of strengthening wood and laying flower buds. But an overabundance of trace elements, phosphorus and potassium can lead to a deterioration in the absorption of other substances, which inevitably leads to a change in the color scheme of leaves, deformation of the fruit and a deterioration in their taste.
It is quite difficult to establish exactly why such metamorphoses occur with pears - due to an overabundance of minerals or a lack of trace elements in the soil. Normalizing the condition of the trees is almost impossible, which in most cases ends with their uprooting. You need to feed the pear garden regularly, generously and variably. However, one should not forget about moderation, because an extra “tidbit” can become fatal for a tree.